Deep Sky Picture Gallery

Here are some of the Deep Sky pictures that I have taken in the last 3 years. Of cause there are many Website in the Internet with far more sophisticated Deep Sky images than mine. Just take the pictures below as a proof that it is not necessary to spent your whole spare time or even quit your job to get some pretty astrophotos with your DSLR.

All pictures are either shot with unmodified Canon DSLRs (20D, 40D and 1D Mark III), a modified Canon 1000D or a cooled CCD camera with a Kodak KAF-8300 CCD chip (QHY9 or Moravian G2-8300). For me it is fascinating to shoot Deep Sky with my DSLR, which I also use for daylight photography. With a DSLR you can watch the results right after the shot on the camera monitor, just the way you do it for daylight shots. That gives a more...let say realistic impression, as I see the camera as an extension of my eye. However, with a specialized astro CCD camera the results are a lot better in terms of noise and resolution.

For a sky with heavy light pollution the results with a cooled CCD-camera are better than with a DSLR as the L-RGB image processing can eliminate the light pollution better and the cooling eliminates the thermal noise floor. For light polluted skies very long exposure times with a good S/N are essential to work out dim details of nebula and galaxies.

From heavy light polluted areas like the Ruhrgebiet in Germany a good method to shoot pictures of dim nebula is narrow band imaging. I use a Moravian G2-8300 cooled CCD camera with a Baader LRGB Halpha OIII SII filter set. From my experience SII pictures are mostly very noisy and therefore I decided to use a bicolor technique to create a RGB image in Photoshop with a synthetic green channel as described in some pages on the web.

However, with very long exposure times and an object in the Zenith it is possible to shoot pictures with a good S/N.

What you can see on Astro shots you will never see with your naked eye. This is the invisible universe getting visible through a camera!

The optics I have used are described in the Equipment part of this website. However, after using Schmidt-Cassegrains for some times I have now concentrated on shorter focal length optics <1000mm, mainly Apochromatic refractors, as long focal length systems make astrophotography difficult regarding guiding tolerances and differential flexing. I have learned that a very rigid mount with good guiding performance, a rigid and precise focusing unit with >3" diameter, and a very stable attachment of the guide scope to the main optics is essential for good results. Further the equipment must not be too heavy and bulky if one wants to escape the city lights and carry the whole equipment to a dark place.

 

New Link: Astrophotography on the Col du Restefond in the French Alps

Link: see my astrophotos from Kiripotib Astrofarm in Namibia in 2010!

Link: here are the latest astrophotos from the Astrofarm Tivoli in Namibia in 2014

 

This is a 100MPix 2-tile mosaic of the Antares Region in Scorpius and Rho Ophiuci. Each tiles has a resolution of 60 Mpix taken with the ASI6200MM Pro monochrome cooled CMOS camera with RGB Filters of Baader. The scope is my TMB 115/805 with the large M82 Riccardi 0,75x Reducer at 600mm focal length with 1.3"/arc-second resolution. Stitching the two tiles of the mosaic in Pixinsight and Photoshop was a pain due to colour and light gradients caused by the inevitable glow of the light pollution of the French Riviera close to the horizon, which is even visible at the Col du Restefond in the French Alps 150km away. I imaged the region until it vanished behind the horizon. The horizon line formed by of the surrounding mountains at my observing location in an old quarry at an altitude of 2600m is quite low and you have a much better horizon view to the south than in any other easily accessible hight altitude location in the Alps that I have been to. I wish I had more time to collect further subframes to improve S/N, but the short nights in July and the low altitude of Scorpius only allowed about 3h imaging per night.

The picture to the right hand side shows my observation location at the Col du Restefond in the French Alps in an old quarry in 2600m altitude. A stone wall protected me against the western winds and the horizon view to West, South and East was very good. In the West there is a pronounced brightening of the horizon caused by the nearby city of Barcelonette. Photo taken with the Canon EOS R and the Irix Firefly 15 mm@f2.5.

Link: Full Res 100Mpix Image

Link: Astrophotography on the Col du Restefond in the French Alps

23x180s RGB per tile, 2-tile mosaic with 2x60Mpix. TMB 115/805 Triplet APO with M82 Riccardi Reducer @ 600mm f5.25. ASI6200MM Pro Full Frame 60Mpix camera and Baader 2" Filter. Celestron CGX mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. Location: Col du Restefond, France.

 

The Lagoon and Trifid Nebula with a full frame 60MPix CMOS camera at 600mm focal length. This shot was taken on the Col du Restefond in the French Alps in July 2021 at an altitude of 2600m. The Col du Restefond is probably one of the darkest spots in Europe and has an almost perfect dark sky and a very good view towards the southern horizon. During my stay the sky quality meter measured 21.7mag sky brightness. This shot was taken with my TMB 115/805 Triplet APO and the large M82 0,75x Riccardi Reducer at 600m f5.25. I used the ASI6200MM Pro full format cooled CMOS camera at -15°C. The scope and the reducer are optimized to fully illuminate the large chip without any annoying vignetting and good sharpness in the corner for red and green wavelength. The gigantic resolution of 60 MPix makes it possible to create cropped enlargements with a still high image resolution. The image crop of the Lagoon Nebula M8 to the right still has the size of a 4/3" sensor like the ASI1600/QHY163.

Link: Full Res 60Mpix Image M8+M20

17x180s RGB, 18x600s Ha. TMB 115/805 Triplet APO with M82 Riccardi Reducer @ 600mm f5.25. ASI6200MM Pro Full Frame 60Mpix camera and Baader 2" Filter. Celestron CGX mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. Location: Col du Restefond, France.

 

The Omega Nebula Messier 17 in RGB, taken on the Col du Restefond in the French Alps. The sky near the horizon is very dark despite the light pollution of the French Riviera. The gigantic resolution of 60 MPix makes it possible to create cropped enlargements with a still high image resolution. The image crop of M17 to the left still has the size of a 4/3" sensor like the ASI1600/QHY163.

Link: Full Res 60Mpix Image

Link: central part of Nebula

13x180s RGB, TMB 115/805 Triplet APO with M82 Riccardi Reducer @ 600mm f5.25. ASI6200MM Pro Full Frame 60Mpix camera and Baader 2" Filter. Celestron CGX mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. Location: Col du Restefond, France.

 

Full Frame image of the entire Cirrus Loop or Veil Nebula region, also called Cirrus Nebula. The picture includes: NGC6960, the Eastern Veil Nebula with the bright star 52 Cygni, sometimes called Witch's Broom. NGC6992 and NGC6995, the western part of the Cygnus Loop. Pickering Triangle towards the central of the Cygnus Loop.

The left picture is a Narrowband HaOIIISII image with RGB data for star colours. Narrowband data were taken in my home observatory in Germany. The picture to the right is an image taken with R, G and B filters and Ha for luminance. Those frames were taken on the Col du Restefond in the French Alps.

Link: Full Res 60Mpix Image in Ha RGB

Link: Full Res 60Mpix Image in HaOIIISII

24x180s RGB, 9x600s HaOIIISII. TMB 115/805 Triplet APO with M82 Riccardi Reducer @ 600mm f5.25. ASI6200MM Pro Full Frame 60Mpix camera and Baader 2" Filter. Celestron CGX mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. Location: Col du Restefond, France.

 

The Starburst Galaxy Messier 94 in the constellation of Canes Venatici. This is one of the first test shots with the new 3" Riccardi Newton Corrector on my now modified ASA 10N and the ASI6200 full format camera. The outer ring of this galaxy is not visible due to the bright sky background.

Link: Full Res 60Mpix Image

Link: Central part of Nebula

10x360s RGB with the ASA 10N f3.8 and the Riccardi Newton Corrector plus the ASI6200MM Pro and Baader 2" Filters. 10micron GM2000QCI mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The Starburst Galaxy Messier 94 in the constellation of Canes Venatici. This is one of the first test shots with the new 3" Riccardi Newton Corrector on my now modified ASA 10N and the ASI6200 full format camera. The outer ring of this galaxy is not visible due to the bright sky background.

10x360s RGB with the ASA 10N f3.8 and the Riccardi Newton Corrector plus the ASI6200MM Pro and Baader 2" Filters. 10micron GM2000QCI mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The Planetary Nebula PK 164.31.1, also known as Jones-Emberson 1 in the constellation Lynx. It is a fairly large planetary nebula but with a low surface brightness of only 17mag. This picture is a Ha-OIII Bicolor Narrowband image with Ha as red, OIII+Ha as green and OIII as blue, plus a RGB image for star colours. Due to the light pollution a RGB image only is not feasible for this faint object. The white dwarf, that expelled the ring-like structure, can be spotted in the middle of the nebula.

Link: Full Res Image

Narrowband: 28x600s Ha for red and green, 28x600s OIII for green and blue. 14x180s RGB for star colours. ASA 10N f3.6 plus Canon EF1,4x II @f5. 10micron GM2000QCI mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. ZWO ASI 6200MM Pro + Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

IC443 is also called the Yellyfish Nebula and is located in the constellation of Gemini. Late in the winter season I could use three clear nights to catch this object low in the western sky. As the sky in the western horizon is heavily light polluted by the big cities of the Ruhrgebiet, I had to struggle with nasty gradients in the large field of view of the ASI6200MM full format camera. I used my ASA10N f3.6 astrograph for this object. Illumination in the corner of the full format could be better and is also a big challenge if you have a bright sky background. Compared to my first picture of this object a couple of years ago with the same optics, but a 4/3" CCD camera, the larger field of view of the ASI6200MM provides a more pleasing end result but needs much more attention in image processing.

Link: Full Res Image

Narrowband: 16x600s Ha for red, 16x600s OIII for green and 16x600s SII for blue. 5x180s RGB for star colours. ASA 10N f3.6 astrograph with 3" Wynne corrector. 10micron GM2000QCI mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. ZWO ASI 6200MM Pro + Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The famous region of Barnard 33, or Horse-head Nebula, and the Flame Nebula in Orion. The TMB 115mm APO@ 520mm focal length, combined with the full format chip of the ASI6200 provides a large field of view and a high resolution. S/N could be better; the constellation of Orion is in the southern sky and this part of the sky is heavily light polluted by the city lights of the Ruhrgebiet. Furthermore, I only had limited time to capture this object due to bad weather in late winter 2021 here in Germany. The picture to the right is a cropped version of the same image, approximately the size of an APS-C chip.

Link: Full Res Image

Narrowband: 16x600s Ha for red, 16x600s SII for green and 7x600s OIII mixed with SII for blue. 3x180s RGB for star colours. TMB 115/805 with BORG super-reducer @f4.5. 10micron GM2000QCI mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. ZWO ASI 6200MM Pro + Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Same image of the Rosetta Nebula as below, but this time a HaRGB composite. I only used 3x180s RGB and 15x600s Ha for luminance. Nevertheless the S/N is impressively good thanks to the ASI62000MM, which has little noise and no amp glow.

Link: Full Res Image

19x600s Ha for luminance and 3x180s RGB for star and nebula colour. TMB 115/805 with BORG super-reducer @f4.5. Celestron CGX Star Sense Auto Align. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. ZWO ASI 6200MM Pro + Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Location: Marsberg and Lippborg, Germany.

 

The Rosetta Nebula NGC2239 in the constellation of Monoceros. This image was taken with the new ASI6200MM Pro and 2" Baader Filters with my TMB 115-805 TMB Triplet APO and a BORG Super-reducer @f4.5 on the Celestron CGX mount. Despite having a fixed observatory, I decided to take the equipment to a darker location for imaging this object in the souther winter sky, as this part of the sky is heavily polluted in the Ruhrgebiet. I took images in two nights near the town of Lippborg and near Marsberg. The latter location was quite dark and remote. This is a false colour composite from Ha, SII and OIII, blended with a bit of RGB for star colours. The ASI6200MM is a killer camera with zero amp glow and lots of pixel to work with. Image to the right: my mobile imaging setup at the observing site at a wind park.

Link: Full Res Image

Narrowband: 15x600s each for HaSIIOIII, 3x180s RGB. TMB 115/805 with BORG super-reducer @f4.5. Celestron CGX Star Sense Auto Align. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. ZWO ASI 6200MM Pro + Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Location: Marsberg and Lippborg, Germany.

 

The Rosetta Nebula NGC2239 in the constellation of Monoceros. This image was taken with the new ASI6200MM Pro and 2" Baader Filters with my TMB 115-805 TMB Triplet APO and a BORG Super-reducer @f4.5. Although the image train is able to illuminate the large full format field of the gigantic 60Mpx chip of the ASI 6200, I had to crop the final image due to light reflections inside the tube caused by the bright waxing moon in the vicinity of the nebula. The image was taken near the town Billerbeck in the Muensterland in Germany, a Bortle 4 zone. However, the moon was quite bright this evening. This was also the first time I used my new Celestron CGX Mount and the Celestron StarSense AutoAlign Module outside of my backyard. This module add on is very convenient way to align your mount to the sky and do a polar align. Much easier than with my old EQ6 mount.

Narrowband: 19x600s Ha for red and green, 10x600s OIII for green and blue. No RGB yet. TMB 115/805 with BORG super-reducer @f4.5. Celestron CGX Star Sense Auto Align. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. ZWO ASI 6200MM Pro + Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Location: Billerbeck, Muensterland, Germany.

 

Simeis 147 in the constellation of Taurus and Auriga. This time I used the ASI6200MM full format camera to capture a much bigger field of this large object, compared to my old G2-8300 Micro 4/3 chip. As this object has very little OIII emission, to dim for my light polluted sky, I made Bicolor narrowband image with Ha and SII and mixed some RGB for star colours.

Link: Full Res Image

Narrowband: 40x600s Ha and 15x600s SII Bicolor plus 3x180s RGB for star colours. TMB 115/805 with BORG super-reducer @f4.5. 10micron GM2000QCI mount. Guiding with the ASI120mini and a 50mm Guidescope. ZWO ASI 6200MM Pro + Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

This is a part of the large supernova remnant Simeis 147 at the border of the constellations Auriga and Taurus. The 500mm focal length of the TMB APO with the BORG super reducer are too much to allow a total view of this large emission nebula. This is a new image processing in Pixinsight and PS of data that I had acquired already in 2015. I was able to flatten the background much better than in the original version.

Narrowband: 19x1200s Ha for red and luminance, 7x1200s SII for blue. RGB: 5x360s 1x1 for star colours. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115/805 with BORG super-reducer @f4.3. 10micron GM2000 mount. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

IC417, also called Spider Nebula in the constellation of Auriga. The photo is taken with the QYHY163M CMOS mono camera and Baader filter.

Narrowband: 21x1200s Ha for red and luminance, 6x180s RGB for star colours. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115/805 with BORG super-reducer @f4.5. 10micron GM2000 mount. QHY163M cooled CMOS camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The Crab Nebula M1 in Taurus. Photo taken with the Celestron C11 XLT and a f6.3 reducer at approx. f7 and 1900mm focal length. Due to the mirror flop phenomenon of SCTs and the long image train, an off-axis guider is mandatory for ensuring pinpoint stars.

Ha: 8x600s each. 6x180s RGB for star and nebula colours. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Celestron C11 XLT plus reducer at f7; QHY163M cooled CMOS camera. 10micron GM2000QCI mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Mosaic of NGC1499, California Nebula, in Perseus. As this large nebulosity does not fit into the field of view of my QHY163 4/3" sensor at 520mm focal length of the TMB 115 astrograph, I decided to make a 2-tile panorama of this object in N.I.N.A. Furthermore, the California Nebula has a very strong emission line in Ha and virtually none in OII. But as there is some emission in SII, I could make a Bicolor version with Ha as red and SII as blue. Green is a blend of Ha and SII. Star colours were created by short exposure takes in RGB. The nebulosity was separated from the stars with Starnet++ in Pixinsight and star colours were added from the RGB images. As the blending of the mosaic in Pixinsight did not work at all, I star aligned the tiles in Pixinsight and blended the tiles in Photoshop. All this processing took a very long time. I used the Celestron CGX mount instead of my 10micron observatory mount to do a test run of my new mobile astrophotography rig in my garden, before I carry it to a remote dark place.

HaSII: 10x600s each. 3x180s RGB for star colours. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115-805 @f4.3 with a BORG super reducer and a QHY163M cooled CMOS camera. Celestron CGX mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

IC63, also called Gamma Cassiopeia Nebula, as the bright star Gamma Cas is illuminating parts of the nebula. This object is challenging, as the bright star causes multiple reflections inside the camera, which is hard to control.

Ha: 60x600s. 15x180s RGB for star colours and blue nebulosity. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115-805 @f4.3 with a BORG super reducer and a QHY163M cooled CMOS camera. 10Micron GM2000 mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The open cluster M35 and NGC2158 in the constellation of Auriga. This photo was taken with the TMB 115-805 at 520 mm focal length and the QHY163M CMOS camera.

RGB: 3x180ss each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115-805 @f4.3 with a BORG super reducer and a QHY163M cooled CMOS camera. Celestron CGX portable mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Sh2-132, also called Lion Nebula in the constellation Cepheus. Over 20h of exposure time in Ha and OIII were collected during several nights in November 2020 with my new QHY163M CMOS mono camera. This is not a brand new type of CMOS sensor, but it has the advantage of higher resolution and much quicker download time in comparison to my Moravian G2-8300, which I used for the last 10 years. Right picture: view into my Observatory with a C11 XLT and the TMB 115-805 APO refractors on my 10Micron mount, looking to the eastern part of the sky.

HaOIII: 60x600s each. 10x180s RGB for star colours. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115-805 @f4.3 with a BORG super reducer and a QHY163M cooled CMOS camera. 10Micron GM2000 mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

NGC7636, also called Bubble Nebula. Almost 18h of exposure time in Ha, SII and OIII were collected during several nights in July and August 2020. Right picture: view into my Observatory with the ASA Astrograph and the 10Micron mount, looking to the eastern part of the sky.

HaSIIOIII: 17x1200s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA10N f3.6 + Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. 10Micron GM2000 mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The eastern Veil Nebula NGC6993 revisited. I added more exposure time to my last try from spring 2020 and ended up with a total exposure time of 14h. I tried to work out the dim regions of this supernova remnant in Pixinsight and Photoshop, using Starnet++ and other tools.

Ha[480min]SII[170min]OIII[200min]. CCD-Filter. TMB115-805 with BORG Super Reducer @f4.3 + Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Skywatcher EQ6Pro and 10micron GM2000 mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

NGC7023, the Iris Nebula in Cepheus. Taken on the Bieler Höhe at the Silvretta Hochalpenstrasse in Austria on the long term parking lot on two nights on September 18,2020. Although the sky in the Austrian Alps is usually very dark, construction for the Vermuntwerk was still ongoing and light pollution of the construction site disturbed night sky observation. Furthermore, those nights were very humid and optics were fully dewed after a few hours.

UHC-S: 40x360s + RGB: 19x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB115-805 with BORG Super Reducer @f4.3 + Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Skywatcher EQ6Pro mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Bieler Höhe Silvretta, Austria.

 

M45 in the Plejades. This is the first time I had the opportunity to image M45 under dark skies, when I was travelling to the Edelweiss Spitze and the ITT telescope meeting on the Emberger Alm in Austria on September 13, 2020. I used the Canon EOS R on my TMB 115-805 telescope with a BORG super reducer at F4.3. The nights in Austria on these days were very humid and the optics were fully dewed after a few hours. The ITT in Kärnten was one of the very few telescope meetings that took place during the COVID-19 summer in 2020.

120x180s with Canon EOS R unmodified. TMB115-805 with BORG Super reducer @f4.3 Skywatcher EQ6Pro mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Emberger Alm, Kärnten, Austria.

 

The so called E-Nebula in the constellation Aquila. This image was taken during a trip to south Germany and Switzerland to catch comet Neowise. I used the Canon EF100-400 II @100mm f4.5 telezoom lens on the Skywatcher EQ6 and the Moravian G2-8200 CCD camera. The S/N could be better. A longer integration time would have been beneficial.

UHC-S: 21x180s + RGB: 5x180s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Canon EF100-400 II @100mm f4.5 + Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Gantrisch, Switzerland.

 

LDN673 is a molecular cloud in the constellation Aquila. This image was taken during a trip to south Germany and Switzerland to catch comet Neowise. I used the Canon EF500 f4 super telephoto lens on the Skywatcher EQ6 and the Moravian G2-8200 CCD camera. The S/N could be better. A longer integration time would have been beneficial.

UHC-S: 25x180s + RGB: 5x180s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Canon EF500 f4 L IS II USM + Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Rosenberg, Germany and Gantrisch, Switzerland.

 

The Elephant Trunk Nebula IC1396A has already been an astrophoto target in the past. This time I used the AS10N f3.6 with 900mm focal length together with the Moravian G2-8200FW to capture a small area of this nebula with a total exposure time of over 25h in 4 nights around the full moon phase in August 2020!

I took narrow band images of Ha, SII and OIII for 8h each plus 30min of RGB each for the star colours. The image was processed in Pixinsight and blended in Photoshop with coloured layers. The weak OIII signal, here the blue channel, in the nebula was hard to process. I used the amazing Starnet Tool in Pixinsight to remove all stars, to be able to process the weak parts of the nebula and to get the most out of the narrowband data without enlarging the stars. The image was afterwards blended with an RGB stars only image in Photoshop.

HaSIIOIII: 25x1200s each. RGB: 5x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Ok, it comes as no surprise in Mid 2020: Photos of Comet Neowise! One of the brightest Comets of the last decades, perfectly visible from the northern hemisphere after its perihelion in early July 2020. I took the opportunity to make a short trip to Switzerland to the Gurnigel Pass and the Gantrisch Nature reserve to take photos of the Comet. The more southern latitude of Switzerland compared to Northern Germany resulted in a darker northern horizon during the grey nights after summer solstice. The used lenses for those photos had f-stops of f4 and f5.5, unfortunately not fast enough for this object. Next time I am hopefully better prepared. Image processing of the moving comet against the fixed backdrop of stars in Pixinsight was a nightmare.

Canon EOS R unmodified plus Canon EF 500 f4 L IS II USM, RF 24-105 f4 and EF 100-400 L IS II USM. Skywatcher EQ6 mount. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Gantrisch, Switzerland.

 

This is the eastern Veil nebula NGC6992 in the constellation of Cygnus. This is probably one of the most famous astrophoto targets of the northern summer sky. I used the Skywatcher EQ6 and the 10Micron GM2000 mounts in two nights to hold my TMB 115-805 APO with the Borg Super-reducer at f4.3. The colour image is a combination of SII, Ha and OIII with each 16x600s. I used the Hubble palette for channel combination. However, due to the prominent Ha signal, the image looked to greenish. For a more pleasing look I used the Photoshop selective channel correction tool to tweak colours to the so-called Hubble gold tone.

SIIHaOIII: 16x600s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB115-805 + Borg Superreducer @f4.3. 10micron GM2000 and Skywatcher EQ6 mount. Guiding with the ASI 120mini on a 50mm finderscope. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Data reduction and processing in Pixinsight and Photoshop. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

HDR of the young waxing moon with 15% illumination, processed in Lightroom and Photoshop.

Canon EOS R. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6 with Canon EF 2x Teleconverter. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The famous globular cluster M13 in Hercules. This picture and the next one are made with the same instrument, the ASA 10N f3.6 plus a Canon EF 2x Teleconverter to increase the focal length to 1800 mm. The left picture was taken with the four-thirds sized sensor of the Moravian G2-8300. The one to the right with the full frame Canon EOS R. Both images are processed in Pixinsight and tuned in Photoshop. I have to say that image processing with the cooled monochrome CCD camera with discrete filters is much easier and gives better results with less noise than the DSLR images. Furthermore, the full frame sensor produces a lot of issues with vignetting, which is very hard to eliminate due to the bright sky background.

Left picture: RGB: 5x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. Right picture: 52x180s @ ISO1600.

ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6 with Canon EF2x. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Data reduction and linear image processing in Pixinsight. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

NGC4725 in the constellation of Coma Berenices. This Galaxy is not very bright and as a consequence the SNR of my image could be better. Maybe I have to revisit this Galaxy next spring when it's up in the sky again to collect more photons.

RGB: 27x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Data reduction and linear image processing in Pixinsight. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Comet Panstarrs C/2017 T2 on April 16, 2020. Due to the very bright sky background here in the Ruhrgebiet, comets are not my favourite objects. I only took 3 pictures, 360s each for R, G and B, and aligned on the comet core. That’s why the stars look a bit weird.

RGB: 1x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The edge-on Galaxy NGC4565 in the constellation of Coma Berenices, sometimes called Needle Galaxy. This galaxy is member of the Coma I Group of Galaxies. I invested 9h of exposure time during a long period of clear skies in April 2020 during the Corona lockdown. For astronomy, it is very convenient to stay at home, as I do not need to get up early in the morning of the next day.

RGB: 30x360s each with a total exposure time of 9h. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Messier 86 and 84 in the constellation of Virgo in the central region of the Virgo Galaxy Cluster. The peculiar galaxy to the left is NGC4438. All three galaxies are part of the Markarian's Chain of Galaxies.

RGB: 23x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Messier 64 or Black-Eyed Galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices. The large cloud of dark interstellar dust near the core of the galaxy is very prominent, even in smaller telescopes like the ASA 10N with only 900mm focal length. However, the ASA is not the best scope for galaxies due to the limited focal length. But the fast f-ratio of 3.6 is useful for reducing the required exposure time.

RGB: 20x360s each and 6x1200s Ha as an additional red channel. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

This is the Coma Galaxy Cluster. There are plenty of Galaxies visible. Most dominant are NGC4874 and 4889 in the central region of the cluster. Those two giant elliptical galaxies are close together, surrounded by many more elliptical galaxies near the centre of the cluster. The big spiral galaxy to the left is NGC4921.

RGB: 14x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The Sunflower Galaxy M63 in Canes Venatici, edited in Pixinsight. I used the Ha signal to enhance the RGB picture. The outer regions of most of the Galaxies are barely visible due to the light pollution here in the Ruhrgebiet. Furthermore, the focal length of the ASA astrograph is to small to really show plenty of details in the spiral arms. Heavy image processing is necessary. However, the background extractor tools in Pixinsight work very well and I was able to nearly flatten the background, which is usually dominated by the light pollution emission, superimposed by the vignetting of the system.

Ha: 4x1200s 1x1; RGB: 15x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Again a reiteration of M97 with the same set of pictures taken in March 2020, but this time edited in Pixinsight. I used the OIII signal to enhance the RGB picture. The very dim outer shell of OIII emission around the actual planetary nebula disc is barely visible due to the light pollution. However, the background extractor tools in Pixinsight work very well and I was able to nearly flatten the background, which is usually dominated by the light pollution emission, superimposed by the vignetting of the system.

OIII: 6x1200s 1x1; RGB: 15x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

This is the globular cluster M3 in Bootes. It is very hard to maintain star colours under heavy light polluted skies like here in the Ruhrgebiet in Germany. But for this pictures I was able to work out the star colours with the usage of Pixinsight, a very capable image processing software for astrophotos. The user interface of Pixinsight t is not as convenient as Photoshop, but has very useful tools dedicated for astronomical image processing.

RGB: 6x360s 1x1 each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Its March 2020 and the world as we knew it is disintegrating because of the human malware issue... But the sky remains constant, like M97, the Owl Nebula in Ursa Major, which I revisited with my ASA10N after almost 10 years. The Stay at Home order and Home Office have one good thing: more time for the interesting topics in life :-)

I used the freeware SiriL for the first time to calibrate and stack my photos. Works pretty well and is lightning fast.

Ha: 6x1200s 1x1, OIII: 6x1200s 1x1; SII: 6x1200s 1x1; RGB: 15x360s each. Over 10h of total exposure time. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The North America Nebula, NGC 7000, in the constellation of Cygnus is probably one of the most well know objects for astrophotography. Due to its size I decided to reactivate my TMB 115/805 APO refractor together with the BORG Superreducer to have fast a 500 mm f4.3 optics for my Moravian CCD camera.

This is a version of my previous image of NGC7000 with additional SII data. In order to make an RGB image, I created two versions: one with SIIHaOII for RGB and one with OIIISIIHa for RGB. I mixed those two palettes to create this coloured version of the North America Nebula.

Ha: 12x1200s 1x1, OIII: 16x1200s 1x1; SII: 19x1200s 1x1; RGB: 6x360s each. 16h of total exposure time. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115/805 Apochromatic Refractor with Carbon Tube and BORG f4.3 Superreducer. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the ASA Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

This is a quick Panorama of the entire Milkyway as seen from Namibia in June 2014. Five single 20s frames shot with the Canon 1DX at ISO25600 were stitched together. The panorama shows the Milkyway from the east to the west horizon. At the horizon you can see two observatories of the astro farm Tivoli.

Click here to go to a bigger version of the panorama.

 

 

 

The open double star cluster h&chi Persei in the constellation Perseus.

 

RGB: 5x360s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115/805 with BORG superreducer @f4.3. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

This is a part of the large supernova remnant Simeis 147 at the border of the constellations Auriga and Taurus. The 500mm focal length of the TMB APO with the BORG super reducer are too much to allow a total view of this large emission nebula. I wish I had the opportunity to shoot this nice object under very dark sky.

 

Narrowband: 19x1200s for Ha=red. RGB: 5x360s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115/805 with BORG superreducer @f4.3. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The famous Rosetta Nebula NGC2239 in the constellation of Monoceros, a very nice emission nebula and open star cluster of the winter milky way. I combined 10x1200s each for Ha=red, SII=green and OIII=blue for this colour composite. The S/N of SII is not very good; hence the main signal contributors are the Ha and OIII emission regions. Looking to the South from my Observatory means looking directly into the light polluted Ruhrgebiet. Only the brightest stars of Orion are visible with the naked eye. It is a miracle that anything at all appears on the CCD-chip!

 

Narrowband: 10x1200s for Ha=red, SII=green and OIII=blue. RGB: 10x360s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115/805 with BORG superreducer @f4.3. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

M100 in the constellation of Coma Berenices is a nice galaxy of the spring sky. It is part of the outer region of the virgo galaxy cluster and the brightest spiral galaxy of this group of galaxies. Unfortunately shooting galaxies in urban areas is not very satisfying due to the bright sky background and the lack of usable narrowband signal.

 

Luminance: 19x600s UHC-S, RGB: 10x360s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The two Galaxies M65 and M66 in the constellation Leo are part of the Leo-triplet. In contrast to my first version with 90 Min exposure time I spent a lot more time in image integration with a total of 370 Min. Unfortunately the end result does not show significantly more detail due to the bright sky background. Shooting galaxies in urban areas is a hassle.

 

Luminance: 21x600s UHC-S, RGB: 10x360s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Another revisit of a former photography project: IC410, also called the tadpole nebula in the constellation of Auriga. I added SII to the Ha and OIII frames, enhanced by RGB frames for star colours. I used the modified Hubble palette with Ha=red, SII=green and OII=blue. Dealing with the dim and noisy SII channel is really difficult.

Ha: 19x1200s 1x1, OIII 19x1200s 1x1, 9x1200s SII 1x1, RGB: 3x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The North America Nebula, NGC 7000, in the constellation Cygnus is probably one of the most well know objects for astrophotography. Due to its size I decided to reactivate my TMB 115/805 APO refractor together with the BORG Superreducer to have fast a 500 mm f4.3 optics for my Moravian CCD camera.

As I am still missing a SII narrow band filter, I shot this picture in HaOIII Bicolor narrow band technique and enhanced the star colours with some RGB frames.

Ha: 12x1200s 1x1, OIII: 16x1200s 1x1; RGB: 6x360s each. 11h of total exposure time. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. TMB 115/805 Apochromatic Refractor with Carbon Tube and BORG f4.3 Superreducer. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the ASA Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

This is the Crescent Nebula NGC6888 in Cygnus. I have used old data from 2012 together with new Ha and OIII images to create a picture of this nice nebula with approximately 14 hours of integration time

The base image is made by narrowband Bicolor image processing and creating a synthetic green channel with OIII+Ha data. However, I have changed the colour of the OIII emission to create a more blueish hue. Furthermore, I tried to catch the dim outer regions of the nebula, as well as the Ha emission of the ionized gas in the Cygnus cloud.

Ha: 20x1200s 1x1, OIII: 14x1200s 1x1; RGB: 7x600s each. 14h of total exposure time. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

The Andromeda Galaxy M31 again. I already collected a lot of data last year, but now I have nearly doubled the amount of data and integration time to a whopping 17 hours!

However, image processing was even more complicated than in the first version one year ago. It took me quite a long time to find an acceptable version. Despite the long integration time, the dim outer regions of the galaxy are drown in the bright sky background of the city lights. For the inner very bright core of M31 it is very difficult to prevent a burn out of the image and simultaneously maintain a realistic colour. I used the HDR filter, high pass filtering and unsharp masking to enhance the structures of the galaxy, and an additional coloured layer to reduce the green hue of the uneven sky background.

Luminance UHC-S 89x600s 1x1, RGB: 21x360s each. 17h of total exposure time. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

Another reloaded version: M106 in Canes Venatici. This is a star burst galaxy of the Hubble type Sbp in 24 My LJ distance. Many young new born stars are creating a bluish glow of the spiral arms.

This version contains almost 2x the exposure time of my first preliminary version. Furthermore I changed the colour composition of the central core of the galaxy to a more bluish tint.

UHC-S: 17x600s; RGB: 6x600s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

Here is a second version of my image of M81 and M82 in Ursa Major with longer exposure times in RGB and an additional Halpha channel for enhancing the red structures in M82. The total integration time is about 10 hours. In my first picture of this Galaxy pair in March 2014 a supernova was visible in M82.

This image contains data from March 2014 and March 2015.

UHC: 20x360s 1x1, RGB: 9x360s each, Ha: 11x1200s. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

M106 in Canes Venatici. This is a star burst galaxy of the Hubble type Sbp in 24 My LJ distance. Many young new born stars are creating a bluish glow of the spiral arms. I did not spend much integration time due to bad weather. Longer exposure times are objective for future work. Furthermore I was fighting with the green sky background of the street lights during image processing. It is hard to achieve a neutral sky background without compromising the colour of the galaxy.

 

RGB: 6x600s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

The two Galaxies M65 and M66 in the constellation Leo are part of the Leo-triplet. NGC3628 is not visible in the field of view of the ASA Astrograph. I did not spend much integration time due to bad weather. Longer exposure times are objective for future work.

 

RGB: 6x360s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

This is the open star cluster M44, also called Beehive or Praesepe cluster, in the constellation of cancer. Its distance is about 610 light years and contains an estimated 1000 young stars of an average age of 500 millions years. It is suspected that this cluster formed in the same interstellar cloud with the Hyades cluster in Taurus.

RGB: 5x360s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

The open star cluster M35 and the globular cluster NGC2158 in Gemini. M35 looks more bluish, containing young stars in about 2800 light years distance. The stars in NGC2158 are old and red and 6x farther away than M35.

RGB: 3x360s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

IC410, also called the tadpole nebula in the constellation of Auriga. I used Ha+OIII Bicolor frames with a synthetic green channel, enhanced by RGB frames for star coulombs. There are at least to of those tadpole visible, leftovers of the star formation of the young cluster NGC1893 within the nebula. The intense UV radiation pressure causes the tails of the tadpoles pointing away from the cluster.

Ha: 19x1200s 1x1, OIII 17x1200s 1x1, RGB: 3x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

NGC7822 in the constellation of Cepheus. I used Ha+OIII Bicolor frames with a synthetic green channel, enhanced by RGB frames for star couriers. This emission nebula has a couple of features that are known by the name "pillars of creation", popular by the famous Hubble picture of the eagle nebula, regions were proto star formation is taking place.

Ha: 11x1200s 1x1, OIII 11x1200s 1x1, RGB: 3x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

Comet Lovejoy 2014 Q2 was a real surprise in terms of brightness and visibility. Discovered only in August 2014 by Terry Lovejoy this comet could be spotted by the naked eye after sunset - darks skies provided.

After a long period of bad weather and bright moon I was able to catch the comet on CCD on Friday, February 6, 2015 by 7 p.m. As the comet moves rather quickly against the starry background, only a short exposure set of images could be stacked.

RGB: 2x180s 1x1, Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N, f=910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000 mount. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

This is the well known Galaxy pair M81 and the Starburst Galaxy M82 in the constellation of Ursus Major. In M82 the Type Ia Supernova SN 2014J is visible. The location of the Supernova is marked with a red arrow. This shot was made mid of March when the Supernova had already passed its peak brightness. The distance of M82 is approximately 12 million light years. This is one of the closest supernovae to earth observed in recent decades. The total exposure time is 3 hours.

UHC: 20x360s 1x1, RGB: 3x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

IC1396A or the Elephant Trunk Nebula in the constellation of Cepheus. This one is shot with the ASA Barlow on the ASA 10N Astrograph at f6.8. I used Ha enhanced by RGB frames for star couriers and the small blue reflection nebula, which is unfortunately not very good visible. The total exposure time is 10 hours!

Ha: 18x1200s 1x1, RGB: 14x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

NGC2264 Conus Nebula in the constellation of Monoceros. I used Ha, Hbeta and OIII narrowband filters, enhanced by RGB frames for star councillors and the small blue reflection nebula. Image processing was quite a struggle due to the sky brightness of the southern horizon caused by the city lights of the Ruhrgebiet. The total exposure time is 7.5 hours!

Ha, Hbeta, OIII: 12x1200s 1x1 each, RGB: 6x360s 1x1 each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

This is the well know great Orion Nebula in the constellation of Orion, Messier 42. I could not gather much light as the weather in Germany is not the best for astrophotography during the winter season 2013/2014 and as I only have a narrow region of the sky between two large trees were I can watch Orion for about 3 hours each night. Nevertheless, I tried to bring out the outer dim regions of the nebula, which fade into the bright sky background lit by the city lights of the Ruhrgebiet, without loosing the central bright region by using HDR technique of Photoshop. I used Ha+OIII Bicolor frames with a synthetic green channel, enhanced by RGB frames for star councillors.

Ha: 9x600s 1x1 + 5x60s, OIII 7x1200s 1x1 + 5x60s, RGB: 3x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

The Andromeda Galaxy M31. Generally, the greenish hue of the bright light polluted sky background of the observation place makes it very difficult the work out all the structures of the galaxy and maintaining the correct colour, although I used a UHC-Filter to reduce background light. Furthermore, the very bright central part of the galaxy needs some attention in terms of HDR processing in Photoshop. I used the HDR filter, high pass filtering and unsharp masking to enhance the structures of the galaxy, and a additional coloured layer to reduce the green hue of the sky background.

Luminance UHC-S 40x600s 1x1, RGB: 12x360s each. 10h of total exposure time. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

NGC6543 Cats-eye Nebula in the constellation of Draco. This planetary nebula has a dim outer envelope of hydrogen gas with OIII and Ha emission. The challenge to make visible the bright inner part and the outer dim areas is the HDR image processing in Photoshop. I tried to show both parts of the nebula despite its very different brightness by using 32bit image processing and HDR techniques to combine narrowband bicolor files for both the inner ring and the outer envelope. Again the ASA 10N Astrograph demonstrated its versatility as I used the ASA barlow lens to extend the focal range up to 1700mm at f6.8.

Ha: 8x1200s 1x1, 9x1200s OIII 1x1, RGB: 4x600s 1x1 each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph with ASA Barlow and 1700mm at f6.8. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and ASA Barlow, and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

This is the well know Ring Nebula M57 in the constellation Lyra. This planetary nebula has a dim outer envelope of hydrogen gas with Ha emission. The challenge to make visible the bright inner part and the outer dim areas is the HDR image processing in Photoshop. I tried to show both parts of the nebula despite its very different brightness by using 32bit image processing and HDR techniques to combine RGB files for the inner ring and Ha for the outer envelope. Again the ASA 10N Astrograph demonstrated its versatility as I used the ASA barlow lens to extend the focal range up to 1700mm at f6.8.

Ha: 24x1200s 1x1, RGB: 4x600s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph with ASA Barlow and 1700mm at f6.8. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and ASA Barlow, and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

IC1795 North Bear Nebula in the constellation of Cassiopeia. This nebula is part of the well known Heart Nebula and lies in the Perseus arm of the Milky Way, some 7000 LJ away. 7h of exposure in Ha and OIII respectively, and 1h RGB each with the ASA 10N Astrograph and the ASA Wynne corrector at f3.6 gives a total exposure time of 17h! This is the longest exposure time of one object I have currently obtained. Although not perfect, the image processing in Photoshop reveals the complex structure of the Ha and OIII regions. The blueish reflection nebula is not well visible due to the massive light pollution of my observation area.

Ha: 21x1200s 1x1, OIII 22x1200s 1x1, RGB: 10x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

NGC7380 or Wizard Nebula in Cepheus. 5h of exposure in Ha and 1h RGB each with the ASA 10N Astrograph and the ASA Wynne corrector at f3.6.

Ha: 15x1200s 1x1, RGB: 10x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

M27 is a classical deep sky object of the summer starry sky. I tried to image the very dim outer parts of this planetary nebula in Ha without sacrificing the much brighter inner part. The bright sky background made this not easy. Over 5h of exposure in Ha with the ASA 10N Astrograph and the ASA barlow lens at f6.8 and 1700 mm focal length were necessary. The ASA barlow lens is a good tool to extend the focal range of this fast Astrograph.

Ha: 16x1200s 1x1, RGB: 10x360s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 1700mm at f6.8. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

The large and nearby Galaxy M81 in the constellation of Canis Majoris is probably one of the most impressive Galaxies in the sky. I shot this one in L-RGB with 70 min UHC-S and 40min RGB each. The sky pollution is very high and therefore the outer parts of the Galaxy are nearly invisible and colour correction is challenging. As the weather conditions in Germany were really bad the whole winter from November 2012 through March 2013 I had not many nights for collecting photons.

UHC-S: 7x600s 1x1, RGB: 4x600s each. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 1700mm at f6.8. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

This is IC443 Jellyfish Nebula (Quallennebel) in the constellation of Geminorum. I shot this one in bicolor technique with 160 min Ha and 140 min OIII and added 30 min of RGB each to have more realistic star colours. Due to the very weak OIII signal and the light pollution the S/N could be better. As the weather conditions in Germany were really bad the whole winter from November 2012 through March 2013 I had not many nights for collecting photons. The colour workflow has been done in Photoshop with the aid of the layer mask technique. I used the first time Adobe Camera Raw 4.3 for noise reduction in my Photoshop workflow as the noise reduction tool in Camera Raw is better than in Photoshop. Further I used the Camera RAW local healing brush to enhance contrast, colour etc. in some of the areas in the image.

Halpha: 8x1200s 1x1, OIII: 7x1200s, red: 3x600s 1x1, green: 3x600s 1x1, blue: 3x600s 1x1. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera. Location: Ruhrgebiet, Germany.

 

 

 

The Flaming Star Nebula,IC405, in the constellation of Auriga. I shot this with my new ASA 10N Astrograph at f3.6 with 9 hours of total integration time (5 hours integration time in RGB and over 4 h in Halpha). The camera is a Moravian G2-8300FW with 2" filters in order to avoid vignetting. The heavy light pollution could be overcome with the use of a Ha narrowband filter. This image is made in Ha-RHaGB using layer masks in Photoshop. The red channel was mixed between red and Ha. Luminance was added by using Ha. Star colours were enhanced slightly by using masking technique.

Halpha: 13x1200s 1x1, red: 8x600s 1x1, green: 8x600s 1x1, blue: 14x600s 1x1. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera.

 

 

 

IC11 or NGC281, also called Pacman Nebula in Cassiopeia. I shot this with my new ASA 10N Astrograph at f3.6 with over 6 hours of total integration time. The camera is a Moravian G2-8300FW with 2" filters in order to avoid vignetting. The heavy light pollution could be overcome with the use of Ha and OIII narrowband filters. This image is made in bicolor technique using layer masks in Photoshop.

Halpha: 25x1200s 1x1, OIII: 12x1200s 1x1. Baader 2" CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Guiding with a self made off-axis guider for the Wynne-Corrector and a Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera.

 

 

 

This is the first preliminary picture I shot with my new ASA 10N Astrograph at f3.6. It is the Crescent nebula in Cygnus. The camera is a Moravian G2-8300FW with 1,25" filters which cause heavy vignetting at the image corners. Therefore I had to crop the picture. Although I had only 3,5h exposure time for this shot the result is quite impressive, as the heavy light polluted sky usually needs a much longer exposure time. The very fast f3.6 is worth the money I paid for...

Halpha: 6x1200s 1x1, RGB: 3x600s 1x1 each. Baader CCD-Filter. ASA 10N Astrograph, 910mm at f3.6. 10micron GM2000. Off-Axis Guiding with the TSOAG9 and Starlight XPress Lodestar. Moravian G2-8300FW cooled CCD camera.

 

 

 

The following picture is Messier 51, shot with a modified TS Imaging Newton 10" f5 with a Baader MPCC Coma Corrector, an Off-Axis Guider and the Moravian G2-8300 CCD-camera Around 10 hours of exposure time where necessary to work out the dimmer parts of the Galaxy arms (48x600s UHC, 4x600s RGB, 5x1200s Halpha). However, heavy vignetting of the Newton due to a too small secondary mirror caused severe problems during image processing as even flats couldn't remove the vignetting. Hence the resulting image is not perfect in terms of image processing. I am sure: under dark skies a tenth of the exposure time would give similar results.

 

 

Bicolor and narrowband pictures of nebulae:

RGB and monochrome shots with a cooled CCD camera and a modified DSLR:

Deep Sky shots with a unmodified DSLR: